Hawala, an ancient banking system that originated in the Mid- at http:/ /www. In essence, hawala is a transfer or remittance from one party to another, without In the case of India, Interpol places the size of hawala at possibly 40 percent of . One de nition from Interpol is that Hawala is “money transfer without money movement.” Hawala originated in Asia during ancient times, and is used in many.

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Hawala – Wikipedia

If the desire of the authorities is to constrain or significantly reduce the importance of hawala activity, this means reducing the economic incentives to do hawala. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. However, before highlighting the major ones, it needs to be noted that the absence of central authority or weak central authority facilitates the rise of hawala and other ITFs.

To accommodate requests of the principals, the intermediaries usually take financial hawsla.

Normak, Magnus Novotny, Perry, Esq. El-Qorchi also notes that h awala has a fiscal consequence, as tax is not paid on the remittance reducing the revenues of the remitting hadala receiving countries.

The Seventh Recommendation was innovative as it called on states to adopt measures under which financial institutions obtain and hold information on the sender name, address, account number etc. The Second Recommendation notes the importance of domestic legislation and the need to make the financing of terrorism a criminal act. For the Convention see: They also called for government licensing and regulation of hawala offices in the same way as insurance offices are regulated.

Internet / Home – INTERPOL

In fact, a successful definition of the hawala system that is used is “money transfer without money movement”. The paper emphasis is laid on the purpose and some of the advantages that hawala offers its users. Dotti, Francesco Doukhan, David Dr. Retrieved September 5, In August the last Al-Barakat representatives were taken off the U.


The Fifth Recommendation builds on the need for international cooperation. In Roman law, the “contractor himself was considered the party to the contract and it took a second contract between the person who acted on behalf of a principal and the latter in order to transfer the rights and the obligations deriving from the contract to him”.

Why Use Hawala The hawala system provides an array of advantages for its users. In addition, crime wings of the FIA would help the SIG investigate cash flows to and from suspected groups and individuals through illegal monetary transactions such as hawala.

The Eight Recommendation dealt with non-profit organisations as they are vulnerable to abuse, and therefore countries need to adopt measures to prevent such abuse.

Eshed, Gadi Essmaeel, Fadi Dr. The figure shows how hawala works: In addition to commissions, hawala brokers often earn their profits through bypassing official exchange rates. States must also cooperate with other states and provide each other with legal assistance in the matters covered by the Convention. The agency was also “an institution unknown to Roman law” as no “individual could conclude a binding contract on behalf of another as his agent “.

There is probably no better way to accomplish this than to facilitate cheap, fast remittances across international borders, and to do away with dual and parallel exchange markets, which are always an incentive to keep transactions underground. The distinguishing feature of hawala is its reliance on trust.

Shavit, Shabtai Shay, Shaul Dr. Moreover, in some parts of the world it is the only option for legitimate fund transfers, and has even been used by aid organizations in areas where it is the best-functioning institution. States must ensure that criminals are unable to use their ill-gotten funds to sow misery and pain.


Moreover, it has been suggested that whereas hawalandars in North America may offer better-than-official exchange rates, their counterparts in the Indian subcontinent profit from offering lower rates to those willing on the rate as their prime concern is laundering their funds. This involved the FATF reviewing the national and international action and setting out what needs to be done to combat money laundering.

For example, an expatriate Pakistani worker in the UAE wishes to send money back home. According to the CIA, with the dissolution of Somalia’s formal banking system, many informal money transfer operators arose to fill the void. Third, the system relies on kinship, ethnic ties or personal relationship between the hawalandars and their customers, which at times meant that funds could be sent before they are deposited with the initial hawalandar.

Blum, Yaron Bollag, Josef Dr. The only limits to the size of a transaction are the willingness of the sender to carry cash and the capacity of the receiving agent to cover the transaction.

Hawala: The Terrorist’s Informal Financial Mechanism

Hason, Ofir Hassner, Ron Prof. Banks are already demanding that those drawing cash from account present some level of authorisation and therefore adding such a system would not cost too much to financial institutions.

Speyer, Lea Spyer, Jonathan Dr. The person sending the funds from Country A hawqla a beneficiary in Country B deals only with the hawalandar who provides the customer with an authentication code which the customer transmit to his beneficiary.