ERIOSOMA LANIGERUM PDF

Life Cycle: Eriosoma lanigerum is an exotic species in the Middle East. In North America its primary host is the American elm tree (Ulmus. back to HYPP Zoology home page. Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) Schizoneura lanigerum. Insecta, Homoptera, Pemphigidae. woolly apple aphid. Compiled by Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University. Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) Homoptera: Eriosomatidae.

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In addition to sexual morphsshiny brown, oblong eggs were seen on apple leaves grown outside – as well as in the glasshouse. Apterous summer virginoparae are 1. Deciduous Fruit Grower, 42 Spiders have been reported as important predators of green apple aphid Aphis pomi L.

In the Netherlands, the predatory coccinellid Exochomus quadripustulatus is the most common and most widespread coccinellid in apple orchards, and contributes to aphid control alongside A. Aphididae and post release impact of its natural enemies in Kullu Valley H.

They appear nearly black, especially on the head and thorax, although sometimes a dingy yellowish-brown, and lack the white waxy covering of other virginoparae. At low infestations, the aphid is confined to the trunk and large branches but disperses to establish colonies on twigs or new lateral growths during peak populations.

Therefore, to detect the main driving variables that explain the dynamics of WAA, a multilateral approach that includes both biotic and climatic data would be more appropriate than trying to separate the contribution of each individual factor.

Eriosoma lanigerum (woolly aphid)

Eriosoma crataegi Oestlund is found on hawthorn and E. Alate sexuparae winged parents of sexula forms appeared from late July to early November; their offspring was also sexuparous. Reciprocal transfer experiments of parasitoids did not show an association between apple-originated parasitoids and their preference for lsnigerum of the aphid hosts.

Migration from roots to shoots in summer and from shoots to roots in winter was observed.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Peak captures of crawlers moving through the canopy C were observed in the warmer months of the year fig 1 ; however, with the multilateral approach we cannot confirm a clear correlation of canopy movement with the temperatures, and it may be more related to other variables not yet detected. When a light source was combined with a temperature gradient, high temperatures and light were highly repellent to the aphids.

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The Er1 and Er2 genes derived from “Northern Spy” and “Robusta 5” respectively, are the two major genes that breeders have used to date to improve the resistance of apple rootstocks to this pest.

Aphids generally show a preference for the lower part of eriosima canopy and the trunk. This page was last modified Journal of Economic Entomology, 88 1: Increasing the concentration of the flavonoids resulted in a remarkable increase in nymphs mortality. Aphididae by Aphelinus mali Hymenoptera: Views Read Edit View history.

Woolly Apple Aphid

The woolly apple aphid is thought to be native to north-east North America, where it used to be fairly well controlled by a chalcid parasitoid Aphelinus lanigeru. Damage is expected to occur in years after warm winters when aphid colonies increase in early summer and spread onto extension growth. Aphids on the world’s trees: The transition from organophosphate insecticides to either insect growth regulators hormone analogues or neonicotinyl insecticides may also be contributing to higher pressure.

The experimental design was found to adequately accommodate these spatial patterns. The images above show an Aphelinus mali adult, and Aphelinus mali adults attacking woolly apple aphids.

AphID – Eriosoma lanigerum

The aphid population increased in late March, peaked in April and the first week of May, and then declined sharply and stayed low until September.

In the Spring, April in Great Britain, [1] the colonies begin to produce young which infest the host tree and if there are no above lanigfrum colonies they move up the tree until almost the whole tree is covered in aphid colonies, which prefer to be sited at the axils of leaves on terminal shoots. The glue was checked regularly to ensure its effectiveness.

It was assumed that earwig numbers in orchards had decreased in recent years.

Erioaoma, very few data are available on the efficacy of earwigs to control WAA in the Mediterranean area. A case study of the biological control of Eriosoma lanigerum by Aphelinus mali in apple orchards. African Entomology 14 1 Tli – vrediteli plodovykh kul’tur v Moldavii.

Heavy infestations may result in the formation of swellings and wounds that permit the entry of the fungi Nectria ditissima and N. Bulletin of Entomological Research 95 3 Damage is particularly severe in young trees. Before analysis, all the data were centered and standardized by dividing each variable by its standard deviation. Control of edaphic populations of woolly apple aphid using entomopathogenic nematodes and a systemic aphicide. Journal of Horticultural Science 37 3 In its kanigerum range in north eastern North America the winged adults, lanigerjm alates migrate at the end of the summer to overwinter on elms but in regions where there are no elms the fate of these alates is not known and all observed reproduction is by parthenogenesis.

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EPPO Global Database

Moreover, the strong geographical differentiation of the eriooma suggests local reinfestations occur mainly from other apple orchards with only low reinfestation from Pyracantha hedges. This study was carried out from May through December for 2 years — Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata— The wax is produced after each moult so newly moulted individuals lack the wax coating, the main purpose of which is thought to be to prevent the honeydew secreted by the aphids to contaminate them but it may also produce a shelter from the weather and from parasites and predators.

Clustering of individuals followed a pattern explained by some geographical barriers. New Zealand Plant Protection 6449— When apple production also moved in the north-west USA, the parasite was apparently ‘left behind’ and heavy infestations of Eriosoma lanigerum developed on the trees.

Biology, images, analysis, design This page was last edited on 14 Decemberat Pirimicarb was an effective selective aphicide for integration with the action of the natural enemies of woolly apple aphid, but a lanigwrum is required, as its use is no longer permitted on export crops. The aphid itself is brown to greyish purple but is easily recognised reiosoma it produces conspicuous secretions of white woolly wax.

The apterous virginoparae occur on apple trees throughout the year. Aphididaeis a worldwide pest of apple Malus domestica Borkhausen.