From Pencils to Pixels: The Stages of Literacy Technologies. Dennis Baron. This article contained some interesting facts about the origins of. In “From Pencils to Pixels: The Stages of Literacy Technologies,” Dennis Baron attempts to explain the histories of writing technologies. Baron, Dennis. (). From pencils to pixels: The stages of literacy technologies . In Gail E. Hawisher & Cynthia L. Selfe (Eds.), Passions.

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They ipxels be experts, novices, cranks, or some combination of the three, and in the case of the two kinds of tire tubes, I had difficulty evaluating the often conflicting recommendations I received. It would cost significantly more nowadays. This site uses cookies. Clay tokens bearing similar marks appear for several thousand years before these first inscriptions. From Memory to Written Record: Anyway, so far as we know, writing itself begins not as speech transcription but as a relatively restricted and obscure record-keeping shorthand.

Mr WordPress on Hello world! Instead of waxing nostalgic about the good old days of hand-made pencils, Thoreau sought to improve the process by developing oencils cutting-edge manufacturing technology of his own. By continuing to use this website, you agree to their use. Thoreau did not ascribe transcendent value to pencils. We have learned to trust writing that leaves a paper trail.

Let thy blood be thy direction till thy death! Next, how literacy has been affected by literacy technologies throughout time is discussed. Baron argues that every new writing technology in time has had to become established and learned.

There were other graphite deposits around the world, but their ore was not particularly pure. It is often difficult to tell when we are dealing with writing and when with art the recent discovery of 10,year-old stone carvings in Syria has pixeos touted as a possible missing link in the art-to-writing chainbut the tokens seem to have been used as a system of accounting from at least the 9th millennium BCE They are often regarded as the first examples of writing, and it is clear that they are only distantly related to actual speech see figure 1.


While the telephone company routinely monitored the contents of telephone calls, when transcripts of telephone conversations were first introduced as evidence in trials, phone companies argued that these communications were just as private and privileged as doctor-patient exchanges Marvin, In present time, teachers advise everyone to use spell check on their assignments before they are turned in.

A hobbyist cannot decide to make a wood-cased pencil at home and go out to the craft shop for a set of instructions. Phone companies also tried to limit telephone access solely to the subscriber, threatening hotels and other businesses with loss of phone service if they allowed guests or customers to make calls. In addition, researchers tend to look at the cutting edge when they examine how technology affects literacy.

In any case, Thoreau was not the complete Luddite that Henderson would have us believe. It is extremely rare to find a pencil without an eraser in this generation. All of this affected John Thoreau and Co. You are commenting using your Twitter account.

The written language takes on a life of its own, and it even begins to influence how the spoken language is used. Knopf,p.

Dennis Baron – Google Scholar Citations

Although the rate of change of computer development is significantly greater, it is still too early to do significant speculating. One of the major technological advances in pencil-making occurred in the early twentieth century, when manufacturers learned to attach rubber tips to inexpensive wood pencils by means of a brass clamp.

The earliest Sumerian inscriptions, dating from ca. Their graphite, however, was not as pure as Borrowdale, and since the Conte process was unknown in the United States, American pencils, though cheaper than imports, remained inferior. Historians of print are fond of pointing to the invention of the printing press in Europe as the second great cognitive revolution Eisenstein Malcolm wrote with pencils in dictionaries that were written and printed using writing technology.

I could spend time reformatting all the citations to comply with MLA format or I could spend time growing this resource.

The final stage Baron talks about is the authentication of these new technologies. As Petroski tells it, the pencil industry in the eighteenth century was buffeted by such vagaries dennos the unpredictable supply of graphite, dwindling cedar forests, protective tariffs, and, for much of its history, an international consumer preference for British-made pencils.


Writing was not initially speech transcription, and pencils were first made for woodworkers, not writers. Of course, the Unabomber and the Lead Pencil Club think otherwise. In the end I chose to stay with butyl, since everyone seemed to agree that, though heavier than latex, it was certainly not the worst thing in the world to ride on.

Theories of Literacy

Over the years we have developed a number of safeguards for preventing or detecting fraud in conventionally produced texts. Baron discusses the development and evolution of the dfnnis of literacy technologies. As for the no-crossing-out rule, writing teachers drnnis routinely warn students that writers never get it right the first time, and we expect pixelss to revise their work endlessly until it is polished to perfection.

Futurologists write books predicting that computers will replace books. Michael Clanchy reports that when writing was introduced as a means of recording land transfer in 11th-century England, it was initially perceived and often rightly so oencils a nasty Norman trick for stealing Saxon land. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Examples of how to cite sources in MLA format are easy to find. The simplest one-word Web search returns pages of documents which themselves link to the expanding universe of text in cyberspace.

This site uses cookies. It is more likely, though, from the absence of references to pencil-making in any of his writings, that Thoreau honestly thought pencils were better for writing than electrical impulses, and he simply kept his business life and his intellectual life in separate compartments.

At last, in the early s, programs like WordStar began to produce text that looked more like the typing that many writers had become used to.