Beliefs about medicines questionnaire (BMQ) Horne, Weinman, Hankins, () Psychology and Health, 14, BMQ –Specific. Your views about medicines. This paper presents a novel method for assessing cognitive representations of medication: the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ). The BMQ-Specific assesses representations of medication prescribed for personal use and the BMQ-General assesses beliefs about medicines in general.

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The BMQ-General comprises 8 items which are subdivided into two sub-scales. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups. As shown in Table 4item G4 Natural remedies are safer than medicines showed non-significant correlations with the other items G1 Doctors use too many medicines and G7 Doctors place too much trust on medicineswhereby item G8 If doctors had more time with patients they would prescribe fewer medicines had the lowest correlation with item G4 when compared to items G1 and G7.

A total of patients were approached in order to recruit the necessary patients per jedicines illness group. Internal Consistency Cronbach alpha values are presented in Table 3. Theory and Practice in Language Studies. Procedure as per Wild et al. Beliefs about medicines beliefd Swedish pharmacy employees.

Int J Clin Health Psychol. Four different chronic illness groups were selected based on those selected by Horne et al. Higher scores in the General-Harm and General-Overuse scales represent an overall negative perception of medication.

BMQ – Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire

The demographics for the study subjects are presented in Table 2. Adaptation and validation study of the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire in psychiatric outpatients in a community mental health setting.

Journal List Pharm Pract Granada v. It was clear at this point that G4 was the item that was mostly inconsistent with the rest of the items on the general overuse scale.


The questionnaire was collected and checked on completion. If doctors had more time with patients they would prescribe fewer medicines. This functional approach in the translation was considered to respect the target patients and their situation and cultural background.

This is the first study to assess psychometric properties of the BMQ in the Maltese language. Open in a separate window.

Psychometric properties of the Belief about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) in the Maltese language

During the analysis of alpha, items G4 Natural remedies are safer than medicines and G8 If doctors had more time with patients they would prescribe fewer medicines resulted in unexpectedly lower values. However, elimination of item S6 gave only minor gains with respect to the internal consistency of the tool. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.

Adapting educational and psychological tests for cross-cultural assessment. The beliefs about medicines questionnaire: However, Mahler et al. Internal consistency values for the German study 7 and the Spanish studies 910 were all above 0.

This could be indicative meicines the item being relatively unstable in the overuse scale.

Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ)

A simple guide and reference. The Maltese version was back translated to English by a certified translator who had no access to the original version of the BMQ, since reversibility is crucial to equivalence. Proofreading The draft in the Maltese language was checked for minor errors that medicihes have been disregarded during the translation process by the principal investigator and a colleague.

Spanish Tordera et al. In each case one component was extracted. Principal component analysis carried out on individual sub-scales to confirm factor loading. Due to the nature of the items loading, component 1 was identified as the General-overuse scale, with the items developed as representative of the overuse scale, G1, G4, G7, G8 all loaded on component 1. Maltese nationality; taking medication for their condition for at least two months; and being 18 years of age and over.


A Brief Introduction of Skopos Theory. Portuguese Salgado et al. Maltese medical folklore man and the Questonnaire in Malta: Starting at the beginning: The Maltese version of the BMQ was found to have acceptable psychometric properties for the beliefs about medicines in the Maltese population.

Due to the nature of the items loaded on component 4, this was identified as the Specific-concerns sub-scale items developed as representative of the scale include S2, S5, S6, S8, S9. J Eval Clin Pract.

Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. Principal component analysis using varimax rotation with Kaiser Normalisation.

Psychometric properties of the Belief about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) in the Maltese language

The process and best practices for effective communication. To further confirm factor loading, PCA was then carried out on the items in each sub-scale in order to verify that the items in each sub-scale were loading on one component.

By convention, acceptable internal consistency is proven by obtaining values of alpha that are over 0. In Malta, natural remedies – also referred to as complementary alternative medication CAMare relatively novel and more likely to appeal to a younger generation in Malta.

The overuse sub-scale for the Spanish version also presented some anomalies, with items G7 Doctors place too much trust on medicines overuse loading on the harm scale and G5 Medicines do more harm than good harm loading on the overuse scale.

Educ Meas Issues Pract. Improvements were considered necessary to fix problems which may hinder the mental processing of the questions, and to tailor these questions beliefe the intended patients.