ARTERITIS VIRAL – Free download as Powerpoint Presentation . ppt), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a contagious viral disease of equids caused by equine arteritis virus. (EAV), an RNA virus classified in the genus, Arterivirus, family. English Translation, Synonyms, Definitions and Usage Examples of Spanish Word ‘arteritis viral equina’.
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However “illegal” entry of equines across borders such as the Venezuelan border, for events that group populations such as fairs or for use as transport, can representa strong riskofdiseaseintroductioninto the country. Although through the years it has been recognized that EAV causes contagious abortion in pregnant mares Doll et virral.
Equine Vet J ; During arteriis viremia, EAV infects and replicates in endothelial cells causing strong multi-vessel damage to the endothelium, the subsequent internal elastic lamina and affecting the middle equima layer of the vessels. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 8: In the same breeder farm, the two remaining stallions were confirmed as positive, but only one showed light pyrexia and both excreted virus in the semen. Serological surveys were conducted in all the horses, two serial diagnostic tests with an interval of 14 days, to verify the absence of viral activity. Among the animal health requirements for permanent entrance of horses into Colombia, ICA requires that stallions be negative after two viral neutralization tests equnia out during the 28 days prior to shipment and a 14 day interval arteitis them; for seropositive stallions, the requirement is that they have mated two seronegative mares which remained negative after two neutralization tests, carried out first, the day of mating and second 28 days later.
Arteriviruses are small, enveloped, animal viruses with an icosahedral core containing a positive-sense RNA genome.
Dark grey, country with the most recent EAV outbreak. A vaccine is available in the UK and Europe viarl, however in laboratory tests it is not possible to distinguish between antibodies produced as a result of vaccination and those produced in response to infection with the virus.
Equine Viral Arteritis: epidemiological and intervention perspectives
J Gen Virol ; Diagnosis Given the clinical similarity of EVA with other equine infectious and non-infectious diseases, any presumptive diagnosis should always be confirmed by laboratory tests Holyoak et al. If the results of blood tests are positive for a stallion, but there is no official documentation of a negative state prior to vaccination, the stallion should be analyzed to determine its possible carrier state. Frequency of equine viral arteritis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. J Am Vet MedAssoc ; Virus reservoir The natural reservoir of EAV infection is the carrier stallion, which ensures the permanence of the infection in equine populations.
Prevalence of antibodies to influenza virus, viral arteritis and herpesvirus in horses of the Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Clinical and virological findings on experimental equine viral arteritis in horses.
Crossfilled, EAV positive result by surveillance in borders, no cases reported in the country.
However, unlike other respiratory diseases, EAV can also be transmitted as a venereal disease during insemination, either by natural mating or artificial insemination, because the virus may be excreted in the semen, which is a major source of infection Figure 1. Therefore equlna propose to strengthen technical scientific investigations and mainly diagnostic capacities to be prepared for early diagnosis and control, and avoid an infection that can be devastating for such a large and important industry as zootechnical exploitation of equines in our country.
Untilthere were no reported cases of the disease in Argentina and the virus had never been isolated in samples from nasal swabs or abortions in horses suffering from respiratory or reproductive disorders.
Equine viral arteritis
Two days after aerosol infection, EAV spreads rapidly to the bronchial and pulmonary lymph nodes, reaching the bloodstream and spreading throughout the body. A consolidated analysis of the results obtained between and showed that of samples tested, were positive 4. There have been different serological tests, to try to assess the presence of infection in different areas and horse populations fromArgentina, most of them yielding negative results, such as in breeders that had imported horses to Argentina sinceand also in horses present in farms adjacent in a radius of 10 km to the first farm in which the infection was first detected De la Sota et al.
However, none of the symptoms reported the presence of reproductive or respiratory clinical signs consistent with those caused by EAV infection. Equine viral arteritis Chapter 2.
It has been more common in some breeds of horses in the United Statesbut there is no breed “immunity”. Since EAV-negative and properly immunized stallions cannot be carriers, every negative foal under 9 months of age should be vaccinated.
After the initial infection males can become persistently infected carriers scattering infection through semen, a situation that brings indirect economic losses by restrictions on international trade of horses and semen from breeding and from countries at risk of infection with the virus.
International Veterinary Information Service www. These measures were subsequently gradually decreased, with artritis a greater emphasis on controlling the international trade of carrier stallions and infected semen, which have frequently been implicated in the spread of the virus within and between countries Timoney, b According to the World Animal Health Organization-OIE, a carrier stallion has serological positive for antibodies to the virus using the virus neutralisation test or an appropriately validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA and also positive virus isolation from the semen Timoney, EVA multi-state outbreak in U.
They are of great importance, one of them causing Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Plagemannand Moennig, In addition, when the origin of the horses was exanimated, the presence of infection was restricted to three of 23 tested provinces, Buenos Aires, Cordoba and Virxl Rios Dela Sota et al.
InJunetwo farms epidemiologically virap with the initial outbreak of EVA were evaluated by virus neutralization. There are considerable variations in the clinical symptoms and in severity of infection, and although many horses infected with EAV do not show symptoms, it has been demonstrated that experimental infection can be fatal Glaser et al. Dark grey, country with the most recent EAV outbreak. Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases of Horses: Equine viral arteritis in perspective in relation to Int trade.
Transmission EVA is primarily a respiratory disease, transmitted through inhalation of viral particles between horses during the acute stage of infection mainly during transport of the animals for trade, exhibition or racing.
J Equine Vet Sci a; Although in Colombia, EVA is an exotic disease, some prevention and control arteirtis have been widely reported, that can make infection a manageable disease, and most importantly, can reduce the direct economic losses produced by disease outbreaks. Equine Viral Arteritis – epidemiology and control. EAV distribution in America.
Equine viral arteritis – Wikipedia
Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus, equine arteritis virus, and simian hemorrhagic fever virus: Outbreaks of infection have been reported in several American countries with which Colombia has active links of virall and export of horses and semen. There also exists some variability between the strains based on their pathogenicity, some strains being capable of causing a wide range of clinical symptoms, collectively referred to as EVA in susceptible horses, whereas others produce only a slight fever Balasuriya et al.
Subsequently, a second stallion developed pyrexia, but maintained adequate fertility. Growth characteristics of a highly virulent, a moderately virulent, and an avirulent strain of equine arteritis virus in primary equine endothelial cells are predictive of their virulence to horses.
Stallions may become carriers.
Pathology of maternal genital tract, placenta, and fetus in equine viral arteritis.